Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth from an orebody, lode, vein, seam, or reef, which forms the mineralized package of economic interest to the miner. Ores recovered by mining include metals, coal, oil shale, gemstones, limestone, dimension stone, rock salt, potash, gravel, and clay. Mining is required to obtain any material that cannot be grown through agricultural processes, or created artificially in a laboratory or factory. Mining in a wider sense includes extraction of any non-renewable resource such as petroleum, natural gas, or even water. Mining of stones and metal has been done since pre-historic times. Modern mining processes involve prospecting for ore bodies, analysis of the profit potential of a proposed mine, extraction of the desired materials, and final reclamation of the land after the mine is closed. The nature of mining processes creates a potential negative impact on the environment both during the miningThe Mining Encyclopedia (Ukrainian: Гірнича енциклопедія) is a Ukrainian encyclopedia of mining. The encyclopedia is compiled by approximately 150 of the leading earth scientists in the Ukraine. The first installment, an explanatory dictionary of mining was published in 1998 by the Donetsk National Technicalmining, underground mining: typical mineEncyclopædia Britannica, Inc.process of extracting useful minerals from the surface of the Earth, including the seas.
A mineral, with a few exceptions, is an inorganic substance occurring in nature that has a definite chemical composition and distinctive physical properties or molecular structure. (One organic substance, coal, is often discussed as a mineral as well.) Ore is a metalliferous mineral, or an aggregate of metalliferous minerals and gangue (associated rock of no economic value), that can be mined at a profit. Mineral deposit designates a natural occurrence of a useful mineral, while ore deposit denotes a mineral deposit of sufficient extent . (100 of 14,139a. The process of digging under an enemy emplacement or fortification to destroy it by explosives, cause it to collapse, or gain access to it for an attack. b. The process of laying explosive mines. production - (economics) manufacturing or mining or growing something (usually in large quantities) for sale; he introduced more efficient methods of production placer mining - mining valuable minerals from a placer by washing or dredging opencast mining, strip mining - the mining of ore or coal from an open mine bore-hole, drill hole, bore - a hole or passage made by a drill; usually made for exploratory purposes heading, drift, gallery - a horizontal (or nearly horizontal) passageway in a mine; they dug a drift parallel with the vein fathom, fthm - (mining) a unit of volume (equal to 6 cubic feet) used in measuring bodies of ore rag - break into lumps before sorting; rag ore hush - run water over the ground to erode (soil), revealing the underlying strata and valuable minerals hush - washThe goal of coal mining is to obtain coal from the ground. Coal is valued for its energy content, and, since the 1880s, has been widely used to generateData Mining for Education Ryan S.J.d. Baker, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA [email protected] Article to appear as Baker, R.S.J.d. (in press) Data Mining for Education. To appear in McGaw, B., Peterson, P., Baker, E. (Eds.) International Encyclopedia of Education (3rd edition). Oxford, UK: Elsevier. This is a pre-print draft. Final article may involve minor changes and different formatting. I would like to thank Cristobal Romero, Sandip Sinharay, and Joseph Beck for their comments and suggestions on this document, and Joseph Beck and Jack Mostow for their permission to discuss their research as a “best practices” case study in this article. Data Mining for Education Ryan S.J.d. Baker, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA Introduction Data mining, also called Knowledge Discovery in Databases (KDD), is the field of discovering novel and potentially useful information from large amounts of data. Data mining has been applied in a great numbermining, extraction of solid mineral resources from the earth. These resources include ores, which contain commercially valuable amounts of metals, such as iron and aluminum; precious stones, such as diamonds; building stones, such as granite; and solid fuels, such as coal and oil shale. The search for and discovery of mineral deposits is called prospecting prospecting, search for mineral deposits suitable for mining. Modern prospecting has replaced earlier methods based on chance or superstition (e.g., use of the divining rod) with others based on a scientific knowledge of modern geology and mineralogy. ... Click the link for more information. , or exploration. When a mineral deposit is found, it is studied to determine if it can be mined profitably. If so, the deposit can be worked or extracted by a variety of mining methods.
Surface Mining Methods Strip mining (see coal mining coal mining, physical extraction of coal resources to yield coal; also, the business of exploring for,data mining, also called knowledge discovery in databases, in computer science, the process of discovering interesting and useful patterns and relationships in large volumes of data. The field combines tools from statistics and artificial intelligence (such as neural networks and machine learning) with database management to analyze large digital collections, known as data sets. Data mining is widely used in business (insurance, banking, retail), science research (astronomy, medicine), and government security (detection of criminals and terrorists). The proliferation of numerous large, and sometimes connected, government and private databases has led to regulations to ensure that individual records are accurate and secure from unauthorized viewing or tampering. Most types of data mining are targeted toward ascertaining general knowledge about a group rather than knowledge about specific individuals—a supermarket is less concerned about selling one more item to one person than about.